Tilleard, S., Ford, J.D. (2016) Adaptation readiness and adaptive capacity of transboundary river basins. Climatic Change. 137:575-591.
Transboundary river basins face significant threats from climate change,with the need for adaptation widely noted. In this paper we develop a theoretically-rooted indicator-based evaluation framework to identify transboundary river basins where the need for adaptation support is pronounced and prioritize where attention is best placed. The framework combines indicators which capture the broad level potential to adapt (adaptive capacity) and the actual preparedness for adaptation (adaptation readiness) at the level of transboundary institutions.Adaptive capacity and adaptation readiness have not previously been evaluated and compared within a single framework, and by combining them we gain a more comprehensive and nuanced basis for characterising and evaluating the adaptation landscape and diagnosing opportunities and constraints for adaptation. We apply the framework to 42 transboundary basins in Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, which account for 15 % of global transboundary river basins, are home to over 550 million people, and cover 8 % of Earth’s total land area. We find: 1) There is widespread need for improving national and transboundary institutional support for adaptation spanning basins of various economic, physical, and demographic characteristics; 2) Many transboundary basins in Africa have low adaptive capacity, but were found to have high readiness to begin adapting if resources were available; and 3) Im-proved coverage of River Basin Organisations and treaties with mandates to recognise and respond actively to climate change would underpin adaptation efforts across basins.
The Annual Scientific Meeting (ASM) for Arctic scientists is December 5th to December 9th in Winnipeg, Manitoba. As usual, numerous students and researchers from the Climate Change Adaptation Research Group will be presenting their work at the ArcticNet conference. The conference also provides an opportunity for students just beginning their research to engage with the broader polar research community and meet Northern officials and leaders. This year we will also be holding a workshop for early-career researchers affiliated with the Inuit Knowledge for Adapting to the Health Effects of Climate Change project (IK-ADAPT) network. IK-ADAPT is a multi-year, transdisciplinary initiative that CCARG helps lead.
Find out more about CCARG at ArcticNet 2016 here.
From October 24 to 28, 2016, Antonia traveled to Washington, DC to participate in the Arctic Fulbright Week. The Week served as the capstone symposium for the seventeen Fulbright Arctic scholars’ research over the last 18 months.
Fulbright Arctic Week included events at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the National Academy of Sciences. The presentations highlighted water, energy, health, and infrastructure in the Arctic.
The week was informative and it was a wonderful opportunity to learn and discuss Arctic policy and science with the scholars from all eight Arctic nations. The Fulbright Arctic initiative is a powerful example of the importance of international collaboration and interdisciplinary work. Additionally, the Arctic youth ambassadors provided insights into life in Alaska and how they are working to mitigate the impacts of climate change on their state.
Check out a cool Twitter movie of the event at the Smithsonian here.
Catch Dr. James Ford and Michelle Maillet at COP22 this week! The United Nations Climate Change Conference, Marrakech runs from November 7-18.
— Michelle Maillet (@MailletMichelle) November 14, 2016
Ford, J.D., Maillet, M., Pouliot, V., Meredith, T., Cavanaugh, A., IHACC Research Team. (2016) Adaptation and Indigenous peoples in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climatic Change. 139(3): 429-443
Indigenous peoples are uniquely sensitive to climate change impacts yet have been overlooked in climate policy, including within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). We identify and characterize the discourse around adaptation in the UNFCCC, examining implications for Indigenous peoples based on a critical discourse analysis of the original Convention and decision texts from subsequent Conference of the Parties (CP). CP16 in Cancun (2010) was a critical juncture after which adaptation emerged as a central component of climate policy in the Convention, with a shift from a purely scientific approach to adaptation to one where local, Indigenous, and traditional knowledge are also valued. Since CP16, the discursive space for incorporating the voices, needs, and priorities of Indigenous peoples around adaptation has expanded, reflected in decision texts and engagement with Indigenous issues in the work streams of relevant bodies. We outline opportunities for greater engagement of Indigenous issues in the UNFCCC post-Paris Agreement, noting the underlying State-centric nature of the Convention limits what can ultimately be achieved.
Vulnerability to unintentional injuries associated with land-use activities and search and rescue in Nunavut, Canada
Clark, D.G., Ford, J.D., Pearce, T.,Berrang-Ford, L. (2016) Vulnerability to unintentional injuries associated with land-use activities and search and rescue in Nunavut, Canada. Social Science and Medicine. 169. 18-26.
Injury is the leading cause of death for Canadians aged 1 to 44, occurring disproportionately across regions and communities. In the Inuit territory of Nunavut, for instance, unintentional injury rates are over three times the Canadian average. In this paper, we develop a framework for assessing vulnerability to injury and use it to identify and characterize the determinants of injuries on the land in Nunavut. We specifically examine unintentional injuries on the land (outside of hamlets) because of the importance of land-based activities to Inuit culture, health, and well-being. Semi-structured interviews (n = 45) were conducted in three communities that have varying rates of search and rescue (SAR), complemented by an analysis of SAR case data for the territory. We found that risk of land-based injuries is affected by socioeconomic status, Inuit traditional knowledge, community organizations, and territorial and national policies. Notably, by moving beyond common conceptualizations of unintentional injury, we are able to better assess root causes of unintentional injury and outline paths for prevention.
@ccadapt wishes Anna Bunce all the best in her new job at BC’s Ministry of Forestry Lands and Natural Resource Operations. Anna has been with the lab for over 5 years, first as a research assistant, then as an MA student examining the effects of climate change on Inuit women, before working as a project lead. Best of luck Anna!
Ford, J.D., Tilleard, S.E., Berrang-Ford, L., Araos, M., Biesbroek, R., Lesnikowski, A.C., MacDonald, G.K., Hsu, A., Chen, C., Bizikova, L. (2016). Big data has big potential for applications to climate change adaptation. PNAS. 113(39). 10729-10732
The capacity to collect and analyze massive amounts of data is transforming research in the natural and social sciences (1). And yet, the climate change adaptation community has largely overlooked these developments. Here, we examine how “big data” can inform adaptation research and decision-making and outline what’s needed from the adaptation community to maximize this opportunity. We contend that careful application of big data could revolutionize our understanding of how to manage the risks of climate change
Archer, L., Ford, J.D., Pearce, T., Kowal, S., Gough, W.A., Allurut, M. (2016) Longitudinal assessment of climate vulnerability: a case study from the Canadian Arctic. Sustainability Science. 11(31). 1-15.
The Arctic is a global hotspot of climate change, which is impacting the livelihoods of remote Inuit communities. We conduct a longitudinal assessment of climate change vulnerability drawing upon fieldwork conducted in 2004 and 2015 in Ikpiarjuk (Arctic Bay), Nunavut, and focusing on risks associated with subsistence harvesting activities. Specifically, we employ the same conceptual and methodological approach to identify and characterize who is vulnerable, to what stresses, and why, assessing how this has changed over time, including re-interviewing individuals involved in the original study. We find similarities between the two periods, with many of the observed environmental changes documented in 2004 having accelerated over the last decade, exacerbating risks of land use: changing sea ice regimes and wind patterns are the most widely documented at both times, with new observations reporting more frequent sighting of polar bear and orca. Socio-economic and technological changes have altered the context in climate change impacts are being experienced and responded to, both exacerbating and moderating vulnerabilities compared to 2004. The adoption of new technology, including GPS and widespread use of the internet, has helped land users manage changing conditions while sharing networks remain strong, despite concern noted in the 2004 study that they were weakening. Challenges around access to financial resources and concern over the incomplete transmission of some environmental knowledge and land skills to younger generations continue to increase sensitivity and limit adaptive capacity to changing climatic conditions.
@ccadapt would like to welcome three new students to the lab. Antonia joins the team after completing her MSc at Oxford and will be doing her PhD research in the Arctic on water issues. Camila joins the lab after working at the World Bank, and as part of her PhD will focus on climate change and water in urban areas in Peru. Darya joins the lab from the University of Arizona and will focus on permafrost thaw and climate adaptation in the Arctic for her masters work.
The Adaptation Tracking Collaborative was officially launched today, funded by a Partnership Development Grant from SSHRC. Based out of McGill―with partner institutes at Wageningen University, University of California Los Angeles, and the Universities of Notre Dame & Minnesota―the ATC brings together an interdisciplinary international team of academics, practitioners, and decision makers who are interested in developing conceptual, methodological, and empirical approaches for tracking adaptation across scales. Initial goals include creating an adaptation index version 2.0 that will link into efforts around global adaptation stocktaking and progress tracking. The ATC will work closely with collaborators, including environmental think tanks (IIED, IISD, ICCCAD), boundary organizations (UKCIP), the private sector (Deloitte), and organizations developing environmental indices (EPI, ND-GAIN). For the official announcement, go to: http://www.sshrc-crsh.gc.ca/news_room-salle_de_presse/press_releases-communiques/2016/partnerships_insight-partenariats_savoir-eng.aspx
Austin, S.E., Biesbroek, R., Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J., Parker, S., Fleury, M.D. (2016). Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13(9), 889.
Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation—cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning—and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning.
@ccadapt would like to congratulate former postdoc Dr Ashlee Cunsolo on her appointment as Director of the Labrador Institute. Ashlee has pioneered work on the mental health effects of climate change and in the north, and the @ccadapt team looks forward to working with her in this new role. Read more here.